SPREAD OF THE MESSAGE OF BUDDHISM

 SPREAD OF THE MESSAGE OF BUDDHISM

Buddhism is a doctrine appealing to the intellect. It is the path leading to Nibbana, a way of life and a means of social upliftment.

 

The world-wide spread of Buddhism, encompassing the means of spiritual as well as worldly advancement and happiness, can be divided into five broad periods, namely, 

  1. Buddha’s lifetime,
  2. The Asoka Period,
  3. The Kanishka Period,
  4. The Sailendra Period, and
  5. The Modern Period.

1. Buddha’s Lifetime:

In the forty-five years of his dispensation, the Enlightened One preached the Dhamma, travelling on foot from place to place, either at a brisk or a leisurely pace, within the three circles (mandalas) namely the Greater Circle, the Intermediate Circle, and the inner Circle during nine, eight or seven months of each year respectively. 


2. The Asoka Period:

Emperor Asoka, on the advice of Arahant Moggaliputta Tissa, sent missions of Theras to:

  1. Kashmir and Gandhara,
  2. Mahisamandala i.e. the State of Mysore,
  3. Vanavasa i. e. the Northern Kanara State in South India.
  4. Aparante i. e. the region of Gujerat and Kathiawar,
  5. Maharattha i. e. Maharastra,
  6. Yonaka desa i. e. the Greek States of North West India,
  7. Himavanta i. e. the Himalaya Region,
  8. Suvannabhumi i. e. the territories in Indo-China including Burma, Siam and Cambodia
  9. Tambapanni Dipa i. e. Sri Lanka.

 The Emperor through his ambassadors and Dharmamahamatras spread the Dhamma to:

  1. Syria,
  2. Egypt,
  3. Macedonia,
  4. Cyrene,
  5. Epirus,
  6. Central Asia,
  7. Palestine 
  8. Alexandria.

3. The Kanishka Period:

The missionary activities initiated by Emperor Kanishka, spread in the centuries following to:

  1. China,
  2. Mongolia,
  3. Manchuria,
  4. Korea,
  5. Vietnam,
  6. Japan, 
  7. Tibet.

Further Buddhism spread within the territories under the Empire itself to:

  1. Kashmir,
  2. Yarkhand,
  3. Khotan,
  4. Chinese Turkestan,
  5. Afghanistan,
  6. Bactria,
  7. Kashgar,
  8. Central Himalayas and other parts of Ccntral Asia

4. The Sailendra Period:

The Sailendra Kings expanded the Sri Vijaya Empire which brought the whole of Indonesia and adjoining territories under one rule for the first time. During this period Buddhism spread to territories in the region namely:

  1. Java,
  2. Sumatra,
  3. Bali,
  4. Malacca,
  5. Borneo,
  6. Celebes
  7. the Malay Peninsula.

It may be surmised that approximately seventy percent of the world’s population were Buddhists by 1000 B. E. (456 C. E.). The populations of the continents of Europe and America began to expand gradually. As a result, the number of non-Buddhists too had increased. However, according to a computation made by Professor Rhys Davids and others in 1877 C. E. even in that century nearly 40 percent of the world’s population comprised of Buddhists.


5. The Modern Period:

At present Buddhism is fast spreading in the continents of Europe and America. Scholars such as Victor Fausboll, Sir Edwin Arnold and Rhys Davids should be considered as pioneers in the spread of Buddhism in the West. Due to emigration Buddhist communities have sprung up also in Australia and Africa. 

Buddhism is widespread today and this is revealed by the fact that publications of the Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka are mailed to 87 foreign countries.


Buddhist Information Centre of the Sasana Sevaka Society Ltd.

With the present growth of Buddhism in the world it was felt that a Centre for collection and dissemination of information pertaining to Buddhism would be most appropriate. A small beginning was made in 2511/1967 when the Sasana Sevaka Society of Maharagama together with the Sasana Sevika Society established the Buddhist Information Centre at 50, Ananda Coomaraswamy Mawatha, Colombo 3. 

One of the important tasks undertaken by the Buddhist Information Centre was the compilation of a World Buddhist Directory. This is the second edition released to coincide with the General Assembly of the World Fellowship of Buddhists to be held in Sri Lanka in August 2528/1984. Every effort has been made to check the information published in the first edition and also to incorporate new addresses. The Directory, we hope, is a valuable Source for the exchange of information and would help to build up world Buddhist opinion.

It is our intention to update the information published in the Directory regularly and we solicit your continuous co-operation.

            With Metta.
            Madihe Pannasiha Maha Nayake Thera
            Patron
            Sasana Sevaka Socicty.
 
Buddhist Information Centre,
50, Ananda Coomaraswamy Mawatha,
Colombo 3, Sri Lanka.
2528/1984

MESSAGE OF BUDDHISM

Dr. Jotiya Dhirasekera

Editor-in-chief Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, Sri Lanka 

Man, even in the best of circumstances, is not without problems. Problems that disturb him from within and without, as well as problems that relate to his body and his mind have pursued him since his emergence on earth as a sentient being. Disease, old age, accidents and death as well as the tyranny of greed, hatred and jealousy feature with almost unfailing regularity in their midst. Buddhism as a philosophy of life, propounded by the Buddha over twenty-five centuries ago, not only primarily concerns itself with this basic position of the unsatisfactoriness of life in the world which is comprehensively covered under the term Dukkha but also appears to be unique in its approach towards its solution.

Buddhism, let it be known at the very outset, is firm in its rejection of an external agency, either for the explanation of the presence of this state of affairs in the world or as a power through whom it could be eliminated. But in doing so the Buddha, even as the Bodhisatta prior to his enlightenment, was not helplessly confronted with the dichotomy of having to accept accidental or chance happening of events as the only other alternative when he rejected the external agency of a creator. To him as the Bodhisatta, there came the conviction that both these approaches were equally visionless and stultifying. A process of causal analysis clearly appeared to him more logical. He thus conceived of the possibility of a third approach which was more enlightening and infinitely edifying. It is this mode of inquiry and investigation which brought forth the system of philosophy which is directly integrated with life and is also bound up closely with personal responsibility which the centuries that followed has designated as Buddhism. The causal process which generates this unsatisfactoriness of the human lot, unsatisfactory both to the body and mind, was thus discovered and a method leading towards release there from was consequently formulated. This is known in the world of the Buddhists as the basic teaching of the Paticca samuppāda.

 

In the light of this Buddhist analysis, a closer scrutiny of the human being would reveal that his life, particularly the psychical, stretches far back into the past. The Buddhist finds it logical to argue that this life would, with the momentum it gathers now in the process of living, therefore stretch likewise infinitely into the future unless this life-generating process is arrested forthwith. Man being psychically propelled, continuously by attraction and repulsion with regard to things of the world outside, via the medium of sense organs through which he communicates, builds up the life-sustaining stimulus now as well as the pretential for a life after death. The Buddhists accept this apparently unending life-process which they call samsara, as a reality.

 

Worldings are thus caught up in this man-world relationships with all their concomitant stresses and strains which, when viewed sensibly, and with the required degree or detachment, turn out to be far from satisfactory. This is the basic theme of Buddhism, viz. the doctrine of dukkha. It is for the cessation or eradication (nirodha) or dukkha that the Buddha claims he has, by his own enlightenment discovered the way (magga). On Buddha’s own admission he is said to propound the doctrine relating to the unsatisfactoriness of life in the world and its termination (pubbe caham bhikkhave etarahi ca dukkhan c’eva pannapemi dukkhassa ca nirodham. M. I, 140). Accordingly, these three, dukkha, nirodha and magga logically constitute the first third and fourth items of the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism. The Buddha is more or less unique in his application of the method of casual analysis to discover the cause of this unsatisfactoriness or presence of dukkha in the world, without falling back on an inexplicably just or unjust Supreme Being. Thus he elicited the second of his Truths, Samudaya or the origin of dukkha which ultimately traces it back to craving or tanhā. craving for life and pleasures of life. It is the greed to obtain and possess more than one needs or deserves. Stimulated by the momentary and ephemeral pleasures of life which bring infinite distress in their wake, man multiplies and increases his liability for life and regeneration of life. Delighting in these fleeting pleasures of life without due caution and restraint, and unmindful of their consequences, man sinks deeper and deeper in this unhappy and uncertain lot of life and assures himself of its perpetuation. This in brief is what the Buddhist refer to as the tragedy of samsara, the tragedy of the process of painfully sliding along in life, unconscious of it though, ever increasing the momentum for its regeneration.

 

In antithesis to this stands Nirvana, the cessation of this painful process of life. It is the goal of Buddhist salvation which is attained by each one through a successful adjustment to the life situation at the mundane level. It means how successfully we cope with changing vicissitudes of life: how we react, for instance, to the loss of glamour of youth in the natural process of maturing, how courageously we can face up to instances of physical and mental illness or how diligently we can prevent their occurrence. These essentially constitute a major segment of Buddhism’s formula of the irradication of dukkha or unsatisfactoriness of life. How we react to loss and gain, to victory and defeat, viewing them realistically as situations brought about by man’s own error of judgement: how we see clearly the difference between to needs of man for the acquisition of which man has to address himself alone and the hase and vulgar human weakness of greed maintaining at the same time the justice of not depriving another of his rights in the process. This being the basic and primary concern of religiousness in Buddhism, the teachings of the Buddha make no secret of the futility of appealing to a power beyond man for the success and security of human life or its dignity and serenity. The Buddha was emphatic in his declaration that man should seek no refuge beyond himself (attasarana anannasarana D.11,100) for his happiness now or even beyond (attanoloko anabhissaro M. 11,58). It is with the same stress in mind that he has declared that both the origin and the end of the world are contained within the individual, within this fathom-long body of man (vyamamatte kalevare S. 11, 62) which in other words means that the responsibility both for the attainment of Nirvana and the perpetuation of samsara lies with each individual. This becomes abundantly, clear on a closer examination of the fourth Noble Truth, the Way or magga which is declared as the only path leading man to his salvation, to his emancipation from the unsatisfactoriness of life here and now and to his total liberation from the life process of samsara itself.

 

If one were interested in a way of life for the ultimate attainment of his transcendental goals and viewed it as the core of his religion, the Noble Eightfold Path or the ariya atthangika magga and that alone would truly be the religion known as Buddhism. Starting with a cultivated or cultured outlook on life which is known as samma ditthi, or correct vision it takes one who practices the way, at the eighth terrace to correct and meaningful concentration of mind or samma samādhi. This is as far as the practice of the way or magga goes. Prior to the final liberation from the samsaric process from which the Buddhist seeks release, one passes through a final stage which lies beyond the way and is the outcome of it, namely the final fruition of wisdom or the gaining of conviction with regard to the real ephemeral nature of life (yathabhuta pajanananan). This is correct insight or samma ñāna which precedes the final release: Sammananassa Samma Vimutri Pahoti.

 

Buddhism, while it correctly assesses the intellectual diversity of the human world, does not offer diverse and divergent paths of these differently accomplished people for the attainment of their final goal. The goal being transcendentally what it is those who pursue it have to complete this total evolutionary culture known as sikkha or reach the same degree of perfection in being arhant to deserve it. Thus, while it rejects the idea of the saviour and insists on personal accomplishments it also rules out the consolation of grace for the apparent weakling. For Buddhism’s main thesis is that enlightenment (bodhi) or release (vimutti) is within the reach of every one who by his own effort has to acquire it (paccattam veditabbo viññuhi). 


THE SPREAD OF BUDDHISM 

Chronological Table of Important Events

Prepared by Olcott Gunasekera - Director, Buddhist Information Centre. 

There are many problems in preparing a chronological table for a period of 2525 years. The fixing of the actual year of occurrence of an event is the chief among them. For example, although the historicity of the Buddha is now well established, there are several views regarding the year that is ascribed to the Parinibbana (demise) of the Buddha, which is the beginning of the Buddhist era. The year 544 B.C. was taken as the date of Parinibbana and the chronological table was constructed on this basis. 

Due to scantiness of information, certain events are placed by historians within broad periods, running into sevral centuries. In such cases the event is included under the first year or century. As far as possible, the dates occurring in standard books were taken in preparing the chronology.   

B.E.

C.E.

 

 

-80

-462

Birth of Prince Shiddhartha

 

-45

-589

The Enlightenment

Bimbisara, King of Magadha; Confucius and Lao-Tse in China and Mahavira in India, lived during this century.

1

-544

(-383)

Parinibbana of the Buddha and First Council at Rajagha

Ajatasattu, King of Magadha

 

100

-444

(-383)

Second Council at Vesali and first schism

Kalasoka King of Magadha

218

-326

 

Expedition of Alexander the Great to India.

280

to

-264

-227

Reign of Emperor Asoka

Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage began (264BC)

294

-250

Emperor Asoka becomes a Buddhist after Kalinga war

 

297

-247

Third Council at Pataliputta, sending of missionaries to Kasmira Gandhara, Mahisamandala, Vanavasa, Aparantaka, Maharattha all regions in India, Yona country (Greece), Himalaya Region, Suvannabhumi (Lower Burma, Siam and Cambodia) and Lanka (Ceylon)

 

298

-246

Greco - Bactrian Kingdom founded by Dicdotus

 

304

-240

 

Kustana, son of Asoka founded the kingdom of Khotan, Central Asia

330

-214

 

Great Wall of China begun

333

-211

First Buddhist Monastery in Khotan

 

359

to

-185

-72

 

Sunga Period in Central India.

443

to

-101

-77

Building of the Great Thupa, Suvannamali in Anuradhapura. Beginning of the tradition of Rock cut temples at Karle (1st century BC) Nasik, Kanheri, Junnar, Bhaja (2nd century BC) Ajanta (2nd century BC-7 century CE) and Ellora (5 century - 8 century CE).

King Dutugemunu in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Andras in Ujjeni.

489

-55

 

Julius Caeser’s first expedition to Britain.

500

-44

King Menander, theBactrian king meets Van Nagasena in Sialkot, and becomes a Buddhist: writing of Milinda Pañha: Beginning of Greco-Buddhist Gandhara School of art and architecture which greatly influenced Central Asia.

Bactrian Empire.

514

-30

 

Establishment of Roman Empire by Augustus.

515

to

-29

-17

The Ti-pitaka rendered into writing for first time at Aloka-vihara, Matale, Sri Lanka: The Fourth Buddhist Council according to Theravada tradition held in Sri Lanka

Reign of Vattagamini Abhaya in Sri Lanka (29-17 BC)

540

-4

 

True date of birth of Jesus of Nazareth

542

-2

Yi-chen, an envoy of the King of Yueh-chis arrived in Chang-an and taught Buddhist scriptures

 

544

 

 

Christian era began.

569

25

 

Eastern Han dynasty in China. (25-221 CE)

611

67

Official introduction of  Buddhism to China

 

622

78

Fourth Buddhist Council (not recognized by Theravada) at Jalandhar in Kashmir: Ven. Vasumitra and Asvaghosa: writing of Vaibhasa-Sastra

Reign of Kushan King, Kanishka. Beginning of Saka Era. (other dates 128 CE, 144 CE)

694

150

Ven Nagarjuna, the propounder of the Madhymika philoshophy a contemporary of Yajna Sri Gautamiputra

 

710

166

 

Reign of Satavahana King of India, Yajna Sri Gautamiputra (166-196CE)

708

164

 

Great Plague began and lasted to the death of M. Aurelius (180CE) This devastated all Asia. Century of war and disorder in the Roman Empire began.

719

175-

225

Ven. Mon-tseu of China who wrote a treatise comparing Buddhism with the teachings of Confucius and Lao Tse.

 

814

270-

350

Ven. Maitreya (natha) the founder of the Yogacara school

 

824

280

Vasubandhu, brother of Asanga. (280-360 CE)

 

843

299

Goodwill mission from King Vasudeva of Gandhara to China

 

847

303

 

Persecution of Christian by Emperor Diocletian

864

320

 

Beginning of reign of Chandra Gupta and of the Gupta era (300-606 CE)

 

 

With permission from King Chandragupta a Sinhalese monastery established at Buddha Gaya by King Sri Meghavanna (304-333 CE)

 

888

344

Birth of Kumarajiva.

 

894

350

Asanga, most prominent teacher of Yogacara

 

916

372

Buddhism introduced to Kogaryu in North Korea by a Chinese monk

 

928

384

Buddhism introduced from Central Asia to Pakche in S. W. Korea by a monk called Ven. Marananda

 

930

386

Buddhism declared State religion in China

Northern Wei dynasty in China 386-353 CE.

943

399

Travels of Fa-Hien (Fa-hsien) in India (399-414 CE)

Reign of Chandragupta II of India 375-413 CE

946

402

Buddhism introduced to Silla in SE Korea: Buddhapalita and Bhavaviveke of Madhyamika school (1st half of 5 century CE): Dinnaga, acclaimed to be the founder of Buddhist logic; Buddhadatta

 

953

409

Hiu Shen undertakes a mission to Mexico during the reign of King Yung Yuan. Returned 543 CE.

 

964

420

Ven. Sanghavarman translated books on Vinaya from Sanskrit to Chinese

 

975

431

Ven. Gunavarman’s mission to Vietnam, Java and China. Java became a Buddhist country under his influence.

 

979

435

Ven. Gunabhadra, a Sri Lankan arrived in Indrapuri (Hue) from China.

 

1002

458

Arrival of Ven. Buddhaghosa, the great pali commentator in Mahavihara, Anuradhapura; Samantapasadika, the Vinaya commentary was begun in the 20th and finished in the 21st year of the king’s reign.

Reign of King Mahanama in Sri Lanka 458-480 CE

1032

488

Ven. Sangabodhi from Sri Lanka arrived in Tonking and proceeded to Jetavana Vihara Canton

 

1046

502-

549

Ven. Bodhidharma, founder of the Chinese, Ch’an sect.

 

1070

526

Ven. Bodhidharma left for China from Vietnam

 

1092

548

Arrival of Ven. Paramartha (Po-lo-mo-tho) (513-569 CE) of Ujjain in Nanking

 

1096

552

Buddhism introduced to Japan from Kudara (Pakche) one of the kingdoms of Korea.

 

1114

570

 

Muhammad was born

1119

575

Ven. Chandrakirti of the Madhymika school

 

1138

594

Prince Shotoku issued an Imperial Ordinance supporting and urging the development of the Three Jewels

 

1150

606

Ascendancy of King Harsadeva of Kanauj, a great Buddhist benefactor (606-647 CE)

 

1161

617

Ascendancy of King Sron-btsan-sgam-po in Tibet and official introduction of Buddhism into Tibet.

 

1162

618

 

Tang dynasty in China 618-906CE

1173

629

Ven Yuan Chwang or Hieun Tsang (602-660CE) starts on his journey to India; Travelled in India from 633-644 and returned to China in 645 CE.

 

1215

671

I’Tsing’s visit to kingdom of Sri Vijaya. On his outward journey to India, Sri Vijaya a Theravada centre; Travelled from 671-695 CE.

 

1228

684

Talang Tuwo Ins. in Sri Vijaya Kingdom.

 

1239

695

Re-Visit to Sri Vijaya by I’tsing: Sri Vijaya had become a Mahayana outpost.

 

1254

710

Beginning of Nara period in Japan.

Nara made the capital

1258

714

Persecution of Buddhists in China by Yen T’sing: Pala Rule in Bengal - a Buddhist dynasty: Rise of Nalanda University and the Universities of Vickremasila and Odantipuri.

 

1299

755

Ascendancy of King Khri-Sron-Ide-btsan.

 

1319

775

Ligor Inscription-patronage of the Sri Vijaya Kingdom to Mahayana Buddhism

 

1338

794

Kyoto period in Japan

Helan,   Kyoto  became  the capital (794-1194 CE)

1348

804

Beginning of Tendai school in Japan by Ven. Saicho (767-822 CE)

 

1350

806

Beginning of Shingon school in Japan by Ven. Kukai (774-835 CE)

 

1366

822

Establishment of the second Ordination Platform on Mount Hiei, Japan.

 

1394

850

Nalanda copperplate of Deva-paladeva-gift of 5 villages to a vihara founded at Nalanda by

King of Sri Vijaya.

 

1411

867

Copperplate Ins.of Rastrakuta King Dantavarman in Kampilya, Gujerat-donation of land to the Kampily vihara where 500 monks of the sangha of the Sindhu desa lived.

 

1412

868

Ins. of Pandya King Vikramaditya Varaguna with Buddhist references.

 

1428

884

Copper plate Ins. of the Rastrakuta King Dharavarsa recording similar grants to Kampilya vihara.

 

1482

938

Ven. Kuya teaches the Nembetsu in Japan

 

1519

975

Kagudpa school of Yogo established by Tilopa in Tibet.

 

1526

982

Acarya Dipankara Sri Jnana or Atisa Dpal-mar-med-mdsa-ye-ses or Jo-vor-Je-pal-dan Atisa (982-1054CE)

 

1549

1005

Cola Ins. of Rajaraja I in Nagapattanam recording the commencement of the construction of a Buddhist vihara there by Sailendra King Cudamanivarman

 

1554

1010

Buddhism made state religion in Vietnam during Ly-Dyna-sty (1010-1225 CE)

 

1573

1029

 

Punjab, Kasmir, Gandhara under Muslim rulers of Gazni

1585

1041

Ven. Atisa’s mission  to Tibet (1041-1054 CE)

 

1588

1044

 

King Anawratha ascend the Burmese throne

1594

1050

Religious council in Tibet associated with Atisa, Marpa and Milarepa

 

1601

1057

Conquest of Thaton by king Anawaratha and the introduction of Theravada Buddhism into Burma

 

1634

1090

Construction of the Pagan temple in Burma by king Kyanzittha (1084-1112CE)

 

1697

1153

 

Asendancy of King Parakramabahu I in Sri Lanka (1153-1186 CE)

1709

1165

Unification of Mahavihara, Abhayagiriya and Jetavana vihara monks in Sri Lanka. End of all schisms

 

1116

1172

Beginning of Jodo school in Japan by Ven. Honen

 

1725

1181

1182

Establishment of the Sihala Order of monks in Burma

 

1736

1192

 

Beginning  of Kamakura Period in Japan(1192-1334)

1768

1224

Beginning of Jodo-Shinsu school in Japan by Ven. Shinron (1173-1262 CE)

 

1771

1227

Beginning of Soto zen school in Japan by Ven. Dogen (1200-1253 CE)

 

1797

1253

Beginning of Nichiren school in Japan by Ven. Nichiren (1222-1282 CE)

 

1801

1257

Establishment of the Lanka-vemsa in Sukhodaya, later Thailand

Ramakamhem King of Sukhodaya.

1811

1267

Beginning of Jishu school in Japan by Ippen

 

1814

1270

Creation of the Tibetan theocracy by Emperor Kubilai Khan

 

1902

1358-

1419

Ven. Tson-kha-pa, the founder of the Dge-lugs-pa (yellow hats) in Tibet.

 

1912

1368

Setting in of the decline of Buddhism in China

Ming  Dynasty in  China 1368-1644 CE

1952

1408

Founding of the Ganden monastery near Lhasa by Tsonkha-pa

 

1997

1453

 

Constantinople taken by Ottomon Turks

2020

1476

Kalyani Inscription

 

2040

1496

 

Vasco-da-Gama discovers sea route to India

2049

1505

 

Portuguese arrival in Sri Lanka

2093

1549

 

Xavier brings  catholicism to Japan

2091

1574-

1601

Taranatha, a historian of Buddhism

 

2147

1603

 

Beginning of Edo period in Japan 1603-1867 CE

2256

1712

Buddhism appeared in Baikal region in USSR

 

2258

1714

First Buddhist Temple in Buryati, Mongolia.

 

2297

1735

Higher ordination brought from Thailand and the beginning of the Syamopali vamsa in Sri Lanka.

King Kirtisri Rajasinghe in Sri Lanka  (1747-1781 CE)

2378

1834

Tibetan-English Dictioary by Come de Koros

 

2381

1837

George Turnour’s critical edition and translation of Mahavamsa

 

2399

1855

Latin translation of Dhammapada by Prof. Vincent Fausboll.

 

2410

1866

First public controversy between Buddhists and Christians at Udanvita, Sri Lanka.

 

2415

1872

Fifth Council at Mandalaya, Burma (Theravada): Second Public controversy at Gampola, Sri Lanka.

 

2416

1872

Third public controversy at Panadura, Sri Lanka, which led to a Buddhist re-awakening. Establishment of Vidyodaya Oriental College (Pirivena) Colombo.

 

2417

1873

Establishment of Vidyalankara Oriental College (Pirivena) Kelaniya.

 

2423

1879

Light of Asia written by Sri Edwin Arnold

 

2424

1880

Coming of Henry Steele Olcott to Sri Lanka.

 

2425

1881

Founding of the Pali-Text Society by Prof. Rhys Davids

 

2429

1885

Buddhist flag designed. Waisakha Full moon declared a Public Holiday for the first time under British Rule

 

2431

1887

Ven. Soryu Kubahi’s mission to Honolulu, Hawaii.

 

2435

1891

Founding of the Mahabodhi Society by Anagarika Dharmapala

 

2436

1892

Founding of the Buddhist Text Society of Calcutta

 

2437

1893

World conference of Religions Chicago: Introduction of Buddhism to USA by Anagarika Dharmapala

 

2443

1899

Rev. Sokei Sonada’s mission to San Francisco

 

2444

1900

First expendition of Sri Aurel Stein to Central Asia.

 

2451

1907

Founding of the Buddhist Society of Great Britain and Ireland: Establishment of the Jetavana Vihare in Nanking, China.

 

2452

1908

First Buddhist Mission to U. K.

 

2455

1911

Founding of All China Buddhist Association in Nanking.

 

2458

1914

 

First World War 1914-1918

2464

1920

Commencement of the Dhammarajika Vihara at Buddha Gaya

 

2465

1921

Founding of Societe belge d’etudes Orientales

 

2468

1924

Establishment of the Buddhist Society, U. K.

 

2469

1925

Buddhist House at Frohnau, West Germany built by Paul Dahlke

 

2472

1928

Commencement of Mulagandhakuti Vihara, Isipatana.

 

2474

1930

First Pan-Pacific Buddhist Conference in Honolulu

 

2478

1934

Ven. Narada’s first Buddhist Mission to Indonesia, Second General Conference of Pan-Pacific Young Buddhist Associations in Kyoto

 

2383

1939

 

Second World War 1939- 1945

2490

1946

Buddhist mission from  Sri Lanka to Nepal

 

2492

1948

Buddha Sasana Council in Burma

Gaining of political Independence by India, Pakistan, Ceylon and Burma.

2494

1950

Inaugural meeting of the World Fellowship of Buddhists

 

2496

1952

Visit of American upasika Dhammadinna to Melbourne and Sydney and forming of Buddhist Societies of New South Wales and of Victoria

 

2498

1954

Sixth Buddhist Council in Burma (Theravada) Ven. Narada’s mission to Sweden.

 

2500

1956

Buddha Jayanti - 2500th anniversary of Parinibbana of Buddha, Founding of Buddhist Society in Brazil.

 

2502

1958

Founding of the Buddhist Publication Society in Kandy, Sri Lanka.

 

2503

1959

Flight of the Dalai Lama from Tibet to India.

 

2507

1963

Persecution of Buddhists in Vietnam

 

2509

1965

First Theravada Buddhist Centre founded in Washington D.C. USA after visit of Ven. Pannasiha Mahanayaka Thera of Sri Lanka.

 

2510

1966

Buddhist research centre established at Halle, GDR Tibetan Lama Trungvo Rinpoche arrived in U.K.

 

2511

1967

Buddhist Mission to Ghana by Ven. Piyadassi. Sri Lanka First Buddhist Vihara established in Brazil.

 

2514

1970

Buddhist Centre founded in Canada.

 

2519

1975

Forming of the Buddhist Union of Europe

 

2522

1978

Establishment of Toronto Buddhist Vihara, Scarborough, Canada.

 

2526

1982

Conference of World Buddhist Leaders and Scholars held in Sri Lanka, June 1 - 4.

 

 

 

 

 


 REFERENCES

1.      2500 years of Buddhism - Ed. by Prof. P. V. Bapat.
2.      A Short History of India by W. H. Moreland and A. C. Chatterjee.
3.      A History of South India by K. A. Nilakanta Sastri Oxford University Press.
4.      The Art and Architecture of India by Benjamin Rowland. The Pelican History of Art Series, 1956.
5.      Indian Architecture by Percy Brown.
6.      The Art and Architecture of China by Laurence Sickman and Alexander Soper, The Pelican History of Art Series.
7.      A History of Europe by H. A. L. Fisher.
8.      History of Ceylon, Vol. I Parts I & II - University of Ceylon Press. Board, 1960.
9.      History of Philosophy, Eastern and Western Vol. I & II Ed. by S. Radhakrishnan.
10.  The Mahavamsa Tr. by Wilhelm Geiger, Ceylon Govt. Information Dept. 1950.
11.  The Temporal and Spiritual Conquest of Ceylon by Father Fernao de Queyroz. Tr. by Farther S. G. Perera.
12.  History of Buddhism in Ceylon by Dr. Walpola Rahula.
13.  The Evolution by Modern Europe by J. A. R. Marriott.
14.  A Short History of the World by H. G. Wells.
15.  Japanese Buddhism - a critical appraisal by Shoko Watanabe, The Society for International Cultural Relations. Tokyo, 1964.
16.  Buddhism by Shoson Miyamoto - Japan Buddhist Federation, 1964.
17.  Buddhist India by Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids.
18.  Buddhism in China by William Hsu.
19.  Buddhists in New China Ed. by Chinese Buddhist Association, 1956.
20.  Theravada Buddhism in Burma - N. R. Ray
21.  Sanskrit Buddshism in Burma - N. R. Ray.
22.  Hinduism and Buddhism Vol. I & Il by Sir Charies Eliot.
23.  Early Hindu Colonies by R. C Majumdar
24.  The History of Sri Vijaya by K. A. Nilakanta Sastri.
25.  Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
            (1) Last Days of the Buddha - Wheel 67 - 69
            (2) Sixty Songs of Milarepa - Wheel 95 - 97
            (3) Buddhism in Thailand - Wheel 85/86
            (4) Buddhism in Ceylon - Wheel 100
            (5) German Buddhist Writers - Wheel 74/75
            (6) Buddhism in South India - Wheel 124/125
            (7) Sir Edwin Arnold  - Wheel 159/161
            (8) The Contribution of Buddhism to World Culture Wheel 44
26. Booklets and Journals.
(1)   Buddhism in the United States by Ven. Vinita. Lincoln Forum Lecture Series.
(2)   Buddhism in the Western World by Ven. Piyadassi. Lincoln Forum Lecture Series No. 2.
(3)   The Maha Bodhi -Journal of the Mahabodhi Society, India.
(4)   Jayanti - Monthly Magazine of the Lanka Bauddha Mandalaya.
(5)   World Buddhism - The International Buddhist Magazine.
(6)   The World Fellowship of Buddhists - Souvenir of the Tenth Conference.
(7)   Almanac of European Buddhist Organisations Buddhist Union of Europe, 1978.
(8)   The Journal of the Buddhist Federation of Australia, 1974.

Bublished By The Buddhist Information Centre

50, Ananda Coomaraswamy Mawatha, Colombo 3, SRI LANKA


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