1. Anuruddha Thera
ein Vetter des Buddha.
Er wurde zusammen mit Bhaddiya, Ananda, Bhagu, Kimbila, Devadatta und Upāli ordiniert und erreichte bald danach das Himmlische Auge (hierzu s. A.III.131-132).
Erreichung der Heiligkeit: A.VIII.30.
Er war besonders der Satipatthāna-Übung ergeben, wovon viele Texte im Anuruddha-Samyutta handeln.
Auf dem I. Konzil wurde ihm das Anguttara-Nikāya anvertraut (s. Einleitung im Komm. zum Digha-Nik.).
Sein Vers nach dem Hinscheiden des Buddha, in D.16.
Siehe LdM. 892 - 919; M.31, M.32, M.128; A.VIII.46.
First cousin of der Buddha und one of seinmost eminent Schüler. He was the Sohn von the Sākyan Amitodana und Bruder von Mahānāma. When members of other Sākyan families had joined the Order of their distinguished kinsman, Mahānāma was grieved that none had gone forth from seinown. He therefore suggested to sein Bruder that one of them should leave household life. Anuruddha was at first reluctant to agree, for he had been reared most delicately und luxuriously, dwelling in a different house for each season, surrounded by dancers und mimes. But on hearing from Mahānāma of the endless round of household cares he agreed to go. He could not, however, get seinMutter's consent until he persuaded sein cousin Bhaddiya to go mit him. Together they went mit Ananda, Bhagu, Kimbila, Devadatta und their barber Upāli, to the Blessed One at the Anupiya Mango Grove und were ordained. Before the rainy season was over Anuruddha acquired the dibbacakkhu (Vin.ii.180-3; Mtu.iii.177f), und he was later ranked foremost among those who had obtained this attainment (A.i.23).
He then received from Sāriputta, as topic of meditation, the acht thoughts of a great man. The list is given in A.iv.228ff. Another conversation he had mit Sāriputta before becoming an arahant is reported in A.i.281-2. He went into the Pācīnavamsadāya in the Ceti country to practise these. He mastered seven, but could not learn the eighth. Der Buddha, being aware of this, visited ihm und taught it to him. Thereupon Anuruddha developed insight und realised arahantship in the highest grade (A.iv. loc. cit.; AA.108-9; Thag.901).
Anuruddha appears in the Suttas as an affectionate und loyal comrade-bhikkhu, full of affection to seinkinsman, der Buddha, who returned seinlove. In the assembly he stood near der Buddha (Bu.v.60). When der Buddha, disgusted mit the quarrels of the Kosambī Mönche, went away to seek more congenial surroundings, it was to Pācīnavamsadāya that he repaired, where were Anuruddha, Nandiya und Kimbila. The Upakkilesa Sutta (M.iii.153f.), on the sweets of concord und freedom from blemish, seems to have been preached specially to Anuruddha on that occasion, for we are told at the end that he was pleased to have heard it, no mention being made of the other two. And again in the Nalakapāna Sutta (M.i.462ff.), though a large number of distinguished Mönche are present, it is to Anuruddha that der Buddha directly addresses seinquestions, und it is Anuruddha who answers on behalf of them all. Siehe auch the Cūla- und the Mahā-Gosinga Suttas.
Anuruddha was present when der Buddha died at Kusinārā, und knew the exact moment of seindeath; the verse he uttered on that occasion is thoughtful und shows philosophic calm, in contrast, for example, mit that of Ananda. D.ii.156-7. On this siehe Oldenberg, Nachrichten der Wissenschaften zu Goettingen, 1902, pp.168f.; und Przyluski JA. mai-juin, 1918, pp.486ff.
Anuruddha was foremost in consoling the Mönche und admonishing them as to their future course of action. It was Anuruddha again that the Mallas of Kusinārā consulted bezüglich der Buddha's last obsequies (D.ii.160f). Später, at the First Council, he played a prominent part und was entrusted mit the custody of the Anguttara Nikāya (DA.i.15).
In one of the verses ascribed to Anuruddha in the Theragāthā (904; ThagA.ii.72) it is said that for zwanzig-fünf Jahre he did not sleep at all, und that for the last thirty Jahre of seinlife he slept nur during the last watch of the night. The same source (Thag.908; auch S.i.200) mentions an occasion where a goddess, Jālinī (ThagA.ii.73; this story is given in detail in SA.i.225-6), who had been seiner Frau in einer früheren Geburt, seeing ihm grown old und grey mit meditation, seeks to tempt ihm mit the joys of heaven, aber he tells her he has no need of such things, having attained to freedom from rebirth.
His death took place in Veluvagāma in the Vajji country, in the shade of a bamboo thicket. Thag.919. Siehe auch Psalms of the Brethren, p.331, n.1. I cannot trace the reference to Hatthigāma. He was one hundert und fifteen Jahre old at the time of seindeath (DA.ii.413).
In Padumuttara Buddha's time he had been ein reicher householder. Hearing one of the Mönche declared best among possessors of the celestial eye, he wished for a similar honour for himself in the future. He did acts of great merit towards that end, including the holding of a great feast of light in front of the Buddha's tomb. In Kassapa Buddha's age he was born in Benares; one day he placed bowls filled mit clarified butter all round der Buddha's tomb und lighted them, himself walking round the tomb all night, bearing on seinhead a lighted bowl.
Später he was reborn in a poor family in Benares und was named Annabhāra (lit. "food-bearer"). One day, while working for seinmaster, the banker Sumana, he gave seinmeal to a Pacceka Buddha, Uparittha. The banker, having heard from the deity of seinparasol of Annabhāra's pious deed, rewarded ihm und set ihm up in trade. Der König, being pleased mit him, gab ihm a site for a house, the ground of which, when dug, yielded much buried treasure. On account of this great accretion of wealth he was given the rank of Dhanasetthi (ThagA.ii.65ff.; Thag.910; DhA.iv.120ff).
According to the Dhammapada Kommentar (i.113), as a result of seingift to the Pacceka Buddha, Anuruddha never lacked anything he desired - such had been the wish he expressed. A charming story is related in this connection. Once when playing at ball mit seinFreunde he was beaten und had to pay mit sweets. His Mutter sent ihm the sweets, aber he lost over und over again until no more sweets were to be had. His Mutter sent word to that effect, aber he did not know the meaning of the words "there isn't." When seinMutter, to make ihm understand, sent ihm an empty bowl, the guardian deity of die Stadt filled it mit celestial cakes, so that he should not be disappointed. Thereafter, whenever Anuruddha sent for cakes, seinMutter would send ihm an empty vessel, which wurde filled on the way. Siehe auch DhA.iv.124ff.
The Apadāna (i.35) mentions another incident of seinpast. Once, in Sumedha Buddha's time, Anuruddha, having seen der Buddha meditating alone at the foot of a tree, set up lights round ihm und kept them burning for sieben days. As a result he regierte for thirty kappas as König of the gods, und was König of men zwanzig-acht times. He could siehe a distance of a league both by day und night.
On various occasions Anuruddha had discussions mit der Buddha, und he was consulted by Schüler, both Mönche und laymen, on points of doctrine und practice. In the Anuruddha Sutta (M.iii.144f) he goes mit Abhiya Kaccāna und two others to a meal at the house of Pañcakanga, der König's carpenter. At the end of the meal the carpenter asks ihm the difference zwischen that deliverance of the heart (cetovimutti) that is boundless (appamāna) und that which is vast (mahaggata). The discussion leads on to an account of the vier states of rebirth among the brilliant gods (ābhā), und in reply to the questions of Abhiya Kaccāna, Anuruddha proceeds to explain their nature. At the end of the discourse we find Anuruddha acknowledging that he himself had lebte among these gods.
In the Samyutta Nikāya (S.iv.240-5) he is erwähnt as questioning der Buddha about women, how they come to be born in happy states und how in woeful purgatory. A similar inquiry is erwähnt in the Anguttara Nikāya. Anuruddha had been visited by some Manāpakāyikā devas, who had played und sung to ihm und shown their power of changing their complexions at will. He comes to der Buddha und asks how women could be born among these devas (A.iv.262ff).
We find ihm (S.v.174-6, auch 299f) being asked by Samyutta und Moggallāna about the sekha und asekha und about super-knowledge (abhiññā). In dealing mit this passage the Kommentar (SA.iii.183) states that Anuruddha used to rise early, und that after ablutions he sat in seincell, calling up a tausend kappas of the past und the future. With seinclairvoyant eye he knew the tausend fold universe und all its workings.
The Anuruddha Samyutta (S.v.294) gives an account of a series of questions asked by Moggallāna on the satipatthānā, their extent, etc. Anuruddha offensichtlich laid great emphasis on the cultivation of the satipatthānā, for we find mention of them occurring over und over again in seindiscourses. He attributes all sein powers to their development, und admonishes seinhearers to practise them. S.v.299-306. He himself considered the dibbacakkhu as the highest attainment. Thus in the Mahāgosinga Sutta (M.i.213) he declares it to be more worthy than knowledge of the doctrine, meditation, Wald-life, discourse on the abhidhamma or self-mastery.
Once he lay grievously ill in the Andhavana in Sāvatthi, aber the pain made no impression on seinmind, because, he says, seinmind was well grounded in the satipatthānā (S.v.302, aber siehe DhA.iv.129, where he suffered from wind in the stomach). Apart from seinteaching of the satipatthānā, he does not seem to have found fame as a teacher. He was of a retiring disposition und never interfered in any of the Mönche' quarrels.
Mention is often made of Anuruddha's iddhi-powers. Thus, he was one of those who went to the Brahma-world to curb the pride of the Brahma who had thought that no Asket could reach seinworld (S.i.145. The others being Moggallāna, Mahākassapa und Mahākappina). The Mutter of the Yakkha Piyankara, while wandering in search of food, heard ihm at night reciting some verses from the Dhammapada und stood spellbound listening (S.i.209; SA.i.237-8).
His iddhi, however, does not seem to have enabled ihm to prevent sein fellow-dweller Abhiñjika from talking too much (S.ii.203-4), nor seinother fellow-dweller Bāhiya from attempting to create dissension in the Order (A.ii.239). Among the Vajjians he seems to have been held particularly in esteem, together mit Nandiya und Kimbila. A yakkha named Dīgha tells der Buddha how the Vajjians are envied by the inhabitants of the deva und brahma worlds on account of the presence of these distinguished Mönche in their country (in the Cūlagosinga Sutta, M.i.210).
In numerous Jātakas Anuruddha is identifiziert mit personalities occurring in the Atītavatthu. In several cases he is erwähnt as having been Sakka, the deus ex machina of the story in question. Thus in the Manicora (J.ii.125); Guttila (ii.257); Ayakūta (iii.147); Mahāsūka (iii.494); Cullasūka (iii.496); Kanha (iv.14); Akitti (iv.242); Sādhīna (iv.360); Siri (iv.412); Mahāsutasoma (v.511); Sāma (vi.95); Nimi (vi.129); Mahāsumagga (vi.329); Vessantara (vi.593).
An anderer Stelle he is identifiziert mit different personalities:
Anuruddha's name occurs in several of the legends of the Dhammapada Kommentar apart from those already erwähnt. In the story of Cūlasubhaddā it is stated that after der Buddha had visited Ugganagara at Cūlasubhadda's request und enjoyed her hospitality, Anuruddha was asked to stay behind at Ugganagara for her benefit und that of the new converts (DhA.iii.471). When der Buddha spent a rainy season in Tāvatimsa preaching the Abhidhamma, it was Anuruddha who kept the people on earth informed of seindoings. DhA.iii.218f.; SnA. (ii.570), states that der Buddha went to Tāvatimsa at Anuruddha's request.
In the Sumanasāmanera Vatthu (DhA.iv.120ff ) we are told how Anuruddha, having himself attained salvation, sought for seinfriend und benefactor of a past Geburt, Sumana-setthi. Sumana-setthi had been born near the Vindhyā Wald as Cūllasumana, Sohn von Anuruddha's acquaintance Mahāmunda, und Anuruddha ordained ihm at the age of seven. The lad wurde arahant in the tonsure-hall.
According to the Peta Vatthu (Pv., p.27, vv. 58-60), it was by virtue of a spoonful of food given von ihm to Anuruddha that Indaka entered Tāvatimsa, und the same gift enabled ihm to surpass in glory Ankura, who had spent all sein wealth in practising generosity.
Anuruddha had a sister, Rohinī, who suffered from a skin disease und, therefore, remained indoors; she would not siehe the Elder when besuchte er her relations. But he insisted on seeing her und persuaded her to sell her ornaments und build a resting hall for der Buddha und seinMönche. She later wurde a Stream-enterer und was regeboren als Sakka's consort (DhA.iii.295f).
In Mahāyāna books Anuruddha's name appears as Aniruddha. In the Lalitavistara he is erwähnt as wearing the Bodhisatta's ornaments when the latter renounced the world. He is sometimes spoken of as a Sohn von Dronodana. Thus, z.B., Mtu i.75; iii.117. Siehe Beal, Records of Western World, ii.38 n. for meaning of Anuruddha. According to the Dulva, it was Anuruddha who, finding Ananda still asekha, got ihm turned out of the First Council until he wurde an arahant (Rockhill, p.151).
2. Anuruddha.-Ein Pacceka Buddha, to whom Nanda Thera in a previous birth offered a canopy of lotus Blumen. Ap.ii.350.
3. Anuruddha (or Anuruddhaka).-One of the parricide kings of Magadha. He killed seinVater Udayabhaddaka und was himself slain by seinSohn Munda. Mhv.iv.2-3; Mbv., p.96; aber siehe DA.i.153, where Anuruddha is given as Mahāmunda's Sohn und Nāgadāsa's Vater. In the Divyāvadāna (p.359) Anuruddha's name does not appear at all in the list of Bimbisāra's successors.
4. Anuruddha.-Personal attendant of Piyadassi Buddha. It was in reply to seinquestion that der Buddha revealed the future attainments of Nigrodha Thera (ThagA.i.75; Ap.i.431) und of Tissa Thera (ThagA.i.273).
5. Anuruddha.-Personal attendant of Kondañña Buddha. Bu.iii.30; J.i.30.
6. Anuruddha.-Autor of the Abhidhammattha-sangaha, Paramattha-vinicchaya, Nāmarūpapariccheda und, perhaps, of the Anuruddha Sataka (Gv.61, 67; SdS. 64; Sas.69). He was an incumbent of the Mūlasoma Vihāra und wahrscheinlich lebte in the eleventh oder twelfth century. Für Details siehe P.L.C.,s.v.
7. Anuruddha.-Teacher of Mahāsumma Thera. He once offered to the Sangha a bowl filled mit ghee. The incident is erwähnt in a discussion as to whether a bowl that had been bought for a particular monk, could be used by the community of Mönche (Sp.iii.698-9). This bowl had been bought for the Elder, aber it was used by the community und was, therefore, kappiya.
8. Anuruddha.-König of Ramañña. He helped Vijayabāhu I. of Ceylon to re-establish the Order in Ceylon. Cv.lx.5-7; see, however, Geiger, Cv. trans. i.214, n.4.
He is auch called Anorata.