1. Gandhāra. Ein Einzel-Erwachter, ein Pacceka Buddha, erwähnt in einer Liste. M.116; ApA.i.106.

2. Gandhāra. One of the sixteen Mahājanapadas (countries) (A.i.213; iv.252, etc.; in the Niddesa und Mahāvastu lists Gandhāra is omitted und others substituted).

Its capital was Takkasilā, famous for its university; its König in der Zeit von the Buddha was Pukkusāti. There was friendly intercourse between him und Bimbisāra of Magadha. Merchants und visitors from one country to another were lodged und fed at the expense of the country's König, und no tariffs were levied on their merchandise. There was constant exchange of goods und valuables, und on one occasion Bimbisāra, wishing to send his friend a gift of particular value, despatched to him a letter containing news of the appearance in the world of the Buddha, the Dhamma und the Sangha. When Pukkusāti read the letter he decided to become a follower of the Buddha, und ordained himself as a monk; then, leaving his kingdom, he traveled all the way to Sāvatthi to see the Buddha (MA.ii.979ff). This conversion of Gandhāra's' König, however, does not seem to have had the effect of converting the rest of its people to the Buddha's faith. The memory of Pukkusāti was evidently soon forgotten, for we find Moggaliputta Tissa, at the conclusion of the Third Council, sending the Thera Majjhantika to convert Gandhāra (Mhv.xii.3ff).

According to Buddhaghosa's account, Pukkusāti's kingdom was over one hundert leagues in extent (MA.ii.988), und the distance from Takkasilā to Sāvatthi was one hundert und ninety-two leagues (MA.ii.987; from Benares it was one hundert und zwanzig leagues, vīsamyo-janasata; J.i.395; ii.47). There was evidently a well-known caravan route linking the two countries, although Gandhāra was regarded as a paccantima janapada. (MA.ii.982; there was also constant trade between Gandhāra und Videha, J.iii.365ff. It would appear from the Mahā Niddesa i.154 that Takkasilā was a regular centre of trade).

At the time of Majjhantika's visit, the people of Gandhāra were being harassed by the Nāga-König Aravāla, und the chronicles contain details of his conversion by the monk. The Nāga-König, together mit his retinue, the yakkha Pandaka und his wife Hāritā, became devout followers of the Buddha. Majjhantika preached the āsīvisūpama Sutta, und many thousands joined the Order. (Mhv.xii.9ff; Smp.i.64f; Dpv.viii.4).

Gandhāra appears to have included Kasmīra, the two countries being always erwähnt together as Kasmīra-Gandhāra. They occupied the sites of the modern districts of Peshawar und Rawalpindi in the northern Punjab (PHAI. p.93). In the time of Asoka the country formed part of his empire, und is erwähnt as such in Rock Edict V. Before that it was subject to the Achaemenid kings. Gandhāra was always famous for its red woollen shawls (kambala) (SNA.ii.487; J.vi.501).

Another König of Takkasilā besides Pukkusāti is erwähnt - namely, Naggaji, who was a contemporary of Nimi, König of Videha. (J.iii.377; cf. Ait. Brāhmana vii.34; Sat. Brāhmana viii.1, 4, 10; see also Gandhārarājā).

Einer der Eckzähne von Buddha befand sich in Gandhāra (Bu.xxviii.6; D.ii.167).

3. Gandhāra. Ein Berg in Himavā. Jat.547.

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