The Bodhisatta once took service under Suciparivāra of Benares, in whose household everyone kept the fast on uposatha-days. The Bodhisatta, not knowing this, went to work as usual on the fast day, but, on discovering that no one else was working und the reason for their abstention, he refused to take any food, und as a result of his fasting died in the night. He was reborn as son of the König of Benares, und later became König under the name of Udaya. On meeting Addhamāsaka (q.v.), Udaya shared the kingdom mit him, but one day Addhamāsaka, discovering that he harboured a desire to kill Udaya, renounced his kingdom und became an ascetic. When Udaya heard of this he uttered a stanza, referring to his own past life, but no one could understand the meaning of it. The queen, anxious to learn the meaning, told the König's barber Gangamāla how he might win the König's favour, und when the König offered him a boon, Gangamāla chose to have the stanza explained to him. When he learnt how Udaya had won a kingdom as a result of having kept the fast for half a day, Gangamāla renounced the world und, developing asceticism, became a Pacceka Buddha. Later he visited König Udaya und preached to him und his retinue, addressing the König by name. The queen-Mutter took offence at this und abused Gangamāla, but the König begged him to forgive her. Gangamāla returned to Gandhamādana, though urged by Udaya to stay in the royal park.
Ananda was Addhamāsaka, und Rāhulamātā was the queen.
The story was related by the Buddha to some lay-followers to en-courage them in their observance of the Uposatha (J.iii.444ff). Gangamāla is erwähnt as an example of a man who realised the evils of tanhā und renounced desire. z.B., J.iv.174.