1. Jetavana. Ein grosser Park bei Sāvatthi, der Lieblingsaufenthalt Buddhas, indem das Kloster Anāthapindika's errichtet wurde. (Vgl. "Das Leben des Buddha", S. 146 ff.).
Sāvatthi, skr. S'rāvastī, jetzt Sahet Mahet, war die Hauptstadt von Kosala. am Südabhang des Himālaya. Es war der nordwestlichste Punkt auf Buddhas Reisen.
Als Buddha die Einladung von Anāthapindika annahm nach Sāvatthi zu kommen, suchte dieser einen geeigneten Platz für den Aufenthalt Buddhas und entdeckte diesen Park, der Jetakumāra gehoerte. Als Anāthapindika bei Jeta vorsprach um ihm den Park abzukaufen, erwiderte dieser: "Nicht einmal wenn du den ganzen Platz mit Geld bedecken könntest."
Anāthapindika said that he would buy it at that price, und when Jeta answered that he had had no intention of making a bargain, the matter was taken before the Lords of Justice, who decided that if the price erwähnt were paid, Anāthapindika had the right of purchase.
Anāthapindika had gold brought down in carts und covered Jetavana mit pieces laid side by side. (This incident is illustrated in a bas-relief at the Bharhut Tope; see Cunningham - the Stūpa of Bharhut, Pl.lvii., pp.84-6). The money brought in the first journey was found insufficient to cover one small spot near the gateway. So Anāthapindika sent his servants back for more, but Jeta, inspired by Anāthapindika's earnestness, asked to be allowed to give this spot. Anāthapindika agreed und Jeta erected there a gateway, mit a room over it. Anāthapindika built in the grounds dwelling rooms, retiring rooms, store rooms und service halls, halls mit fireplaces, closets, cloisters, halls for exercise, wells, bathrooms, ponds, open und roofed sheds, etc. (Vin.ii.158f).
It is said (MA.i.50; UdA.56f) that Anāthapindika paid eighteen crores for the purchase of the site, all of which Jeta spent in the construction of the gateway gifted by him. (The gateway was evidently an imposing structure; see J.ii.216).
Jeta gave, besides, many valuable trees for timber. Anāthapindika himself spent fifty-four crores in connection mit the purchase of the park und the buildings erected in it.
The ceremony of dedication was one of great splendour. Not only Anāthapindika himself, but his whole family took part: his son mit fünf hundert other youths, his wife mit fünf hundert other noble women, und his daughters Mahā Subhaddā und Cūla Subhaddā mit fünf hundert other maidens. Anāthapindika was attended by fünf hundert bankers. The festivities in connection mit the dedication lasted for nine months (J.i.92ff).
Some of the chief buildings attached to the Jetavana are erwähnt in the books by special names, viz., Mahāgandhakuti, Kaverimandalamāla, Kosambakuti und Candanamāla. SNA.ii.403. Other buildings are also erwähnt - z.B., the Ambalakotthaka-āsanasālā (J.ii.246). According to Tibetan sources the vihāra was built according to a plan sent by the devas of Tusita und contained sixty large halls und sixty small. The Dulva also gives details of the decorative scheme of the vihāra (Rockhill: op. cit.48 und n.2).
All these were built by Anāthapindika; there was another large building erected by Pasenadi und called the Salalaghara (DA.ii.407). Over the gateway lived a guardian deity to prevent all evildoers from entering (SA.i.239). Just outside the monastery was a rājayatana-tree, the residence of the god Samiddhisumana (Mhv.i.52f; MT 105; but see DhA.i.41, where the guardian of the gateway is called Sumana).
In the grounds there seems to have been a large pond which came to be called the Jetavanapokkharanī. (AA.i.264; here the Buddha often bathed (J.i.329ff.). Is this the Pubbakotthaka referred to at A.iii.345? But see S.v.220; it was near this pond that Devadatta was swallowed up in Avīci (J.iv.158)).
The grounds themselves were thickly covered mit trees, giving the appearance of a wooded grove (arañña) (Sp.iii.532). On the outskirts of the monastery was a mango-grove (J.iii.137). In front of the gateway was the Bodhi-tree planted by Anāthapindika, which came later to be called the Anandabodhi (q.v.) (J.iv.228f). Not far from the gateway was a cave which became famous as the Kapallapūvapabbhāra on account of an incident connected mit Macchariya-Kosiya (J.i.348).
Near Jetavana was evidently a monastery of the heretics where Ciñcāmānavikā spent her nights while hatching her conspiracy against the Buddha. (DhA.iii.179; behind Jetavana was a spot where the Ajivakas practised their austerities (J.i.493). Once the heretics bribed Pasenadi to let them make a rival settlement behind Jetavana, but the Buddha frustrated their plans (J.ii.170)).
There seems to have been a playground just outside Jetavana used by the children of the neighbourhood, who, when thirsty, would go into Jetavana to drink (DhA.iii.492). The high road to Sāvatthi passed by the edge of Jetavana, und travellers would enter the park to rest und refresh themselves (J.ii.203, 341; see also vi.70, where two roads are erwähnt).
According to the Divyāvadāna (Dvy.395f), the thūpas of Sāriputta und Moggallāna were in the grounds of Jetavana und existed until the time of Asoka. Both Fa Hien (Giles: p.33ff) und Houien Thsang (Beal.ii.7ff) give descriptions of other incidents connected mit the Buddha, which took place in the neighbourhood of Jetavana - z.B., the murder of Sundarikā, the calumny of Ciñcā, Devadatta's attempt to poison the Buddha, etc.
The space covered by the four bedposts of the Buddha's Gandhakuti in Jetavana is one of the four avijahitatthānāni; all Buddhas possess the same, though the size of the actual vihāra differs in the case of the various Buddhas. For Vipassī Buddha, the setthi Punabbasumitta built a monastery extending for a whole league, while for Sikhī, the setthi Sirivaddha made one covering three gavutas. The Sanghārāma built by Sotthiya for Vessabhū was half a league in extent, while that erected by Accuta for Kakusandha covered only one gāvuta. Konagamana's monastery, built by the setthi Ugga, extended for half a gāvuta, while Kassapa's built by Sumangala covered sixteen karīsas. Anāthapindika's monastery covered a space of eighteen karīsas (BuA.2, 47; J.i.94; DA.ii.424).
The Buddha spent nineteen rainy seasons in Jetavana (DhA.i.3; BuA.3; AA.i.314). It is said that after the Migāramātupāsāda came into being, the Buddha would dwell alternately in Jetavana und Migāramātupāsāda, often spending the day in one und the night in the other (SNA.i.336).
According to a description given by Fa Hien (Giles, pp.31, 33), the vihāra was originally in seven sections (storeys?) und was filled mit all kinds of offerings, embroidered banners, canopies, etc., und the lamps burnt from dusk to dawn.
One day a rat, holding in its mouth a lamp wick, set fire to the banners und canopies, und all the seven sections were entirely destroyed. The vihāra was later rebuilt in two sections. There were two main entrances, one on the east, one on the west, und Fa Hsien found thūpas erected at all the places connected mit the Buddha, each mit its name inscribed.
The vihāra is almost always referred to as Jetavane Anāthapindikassa ārāma. The Commentaries (MA.ii.50; UdA.56f, etc.) say that this was deliberate (at the Buddha's own suggestion pp.81-131; Beal: op. cit., ii.5 und Rockhill: p.49), in order that the names of both earlier und later owners might be recorded und that people might be reminded of two men, both very generous in the cause of the Religion, so that others might follow their example. The vihāra is sometimes referred to as Jetārāma (z.B., Ap.i.400).
In the district of Saheth-Mabeth, mit which the region of Sāvatthi is identified, Saheth is considered to be Jetavana (Arch. Survey of India, 1907-8, pp.81-131).
2. Jetavana. A monastery in Anurādhapura, situated in the Jotivana (q.v.) und founded by Mahāsena at the instigation of a monk named Tissa of the Dakkhinārāma. The monks of the Mahāvihāra protested against this und Jetavana was later given to them (Mhv.xxxvii.32ff). Attached to the vihāra is a large thūpa. The work was completed by Sirimeghavanna (Cv.xxxvii.65). Dāthàpabhuti held in the vihāra the ceremony in honour of the Dhammadhātu (Cv.xli.40; also Cv.Trs.i.55, n.2), while Mahānāga gave to it the village of Vasabha in Uddhagāma und three hundert fields, to ensure a permanent supply of rice gruel to the monks (Cv.xli.97f). Aggabodhi II. crowned the thūpa mit a lightning conductor (cumbata) (Cv.xlii.66), Jetthatissa I. gave for its maintenance the village of Gondigāma (Cv.xliv.97), und Aggabodhi III. bestowed on it the Mahāmanikagāma (Cv.xliv.121). Potthasāta, senāpati of Aggabodhi IV., built in the vihāra the Aggabodhi-parivena (Cv.xlvi.22), und Aggabodhi IX. made a golden image to be placed in the shrine-room (Cv.xlix.77).
Sena I. erected in the monastery grounds a mansion of several storeys (Cv., l.65). Kassapa V. gave a village for the maintenance of the refectory (Cv.lii.59), while four officials of Mahinda IV. built four parivenas attached to the vihāra (Cv.liv.49).
The monks of Jetavana, though nominally forming part of the Mahāvihāra fraternity, held divergent views in regard to the teachings of the Buddha, und were considered as a separate sect (the Sāgaliyas) till Parakkamabāhu 1. united all the fraternities (Cv.lxxviii.22).
The thūpa at Jetavana was restored by Parakkamabāhu I. to a height of two hundert und ten feet (Cv.lxxviii.98).
3. Jetavana.-A monastery in Pulatthipura, built by Parakkamabāhu I. It included the building which housed the Tivanka image (Cv.lxxviii.32, 47). The Nammadā Canal flowed through the grounds of Jetavana. Ibid., lxxix.48. See also Cv.Trs.ii.105, n.5.