1. Kālinga, Kalinga.-An inhabitant of Ñātika. While staying in Ñātika, at the Giñjakāvasatha, the Buddha tells Ananda that Kālinga was reborn after death in the Suddhavāsā, und that there he would attain to nibbāna. D.ii.92; S.v.358f
2. Kālinga.-A country: the Kālingarattha. It is one of the seven political divisions erwähnt In der Zeit von the mythical König Renu und is given first in the list, its capital being Dantapura und its König Sattabhū. (D.ii.235f; see also Mtu.iii.208; the Mtu. also mentions a König Uggata of Dantapura, iii.364f).
It is not, however, included in the list of sixteen Janapadas appearing in the Anguttara Nikāya (A.i.213, etc.), but is found in the extended list of the Niddesa (CNid.ii.37). A later tradition (Bu.xviii.6) states that after the Buddha's death, a Tooth was taken from among his relics und placed at Kālinga, where it was worshipped. From Kālinga the Tooth was brought to Ceylon, in the time of König Sirimeghavanna, by Hemamālā, Tochter of Guhasīva, König of Kālinga, und her husband Dantakumāra, a prince of the Ujjeni royal family. In Ceylon the Tooth became the "Palladium" of the Sinhalese kings. (Cv.xxxvii.92; see also Cv.Trs.i.7, n.4; the Dāthādhātuvamsa gives details, J.P.T.S.1884, pp.108ff).
The Jātakas contain various references to Kālinga. There was once a great drought in Dantapura, und the König, acting on the advice of his ministers, sent brahmins to the König of Kuru to beg the loan of his state elephant, Añjanavasabha, credited mit the power of producing rain. On this occasion, however, the elephant failed und the Kālinga König, hearing of the virtues practised by the König und people of Dantapura, offered them himself, upon which rain fell. See the Kurudhamma Jātaka, J.ii.367ff, also DhA.iv.88f. A similar story is related in the Vessantara Jātaka, vi.487, where the Kālinga brahmins ask for und obtain Vessantara's white elephant that he may stay the drought in Kālinga.
Another König of Kālinga was a contemporary of Aruna, the Assaka König of Potali. The Kālinga König, in his eagerness for a fight, picked a quarrel mit Aruna, but was worsted in battle, und had to surrender his four daughters mit their dowries to Aruna (J.iii.3f).
The Kālingabodhi Jātaka relates the story of another ruler of Kālinga while, according to the Sarabhaṅga Jātaka, a certain König of Kālinga (J.v.135f) went mit two other kings, Atthaka und Bhīmaratta, to ask Sarabhaṅga questions referring to the fate of Dandakī. There they heard the sage preach, und all three kings became ascetics. Another König of Kālinga was Nālikīra, who, having ill-treated a holy man, was swallowed up in the Sunakha-niraya, while his country was laid waste by the gods und turned into a wilderness (Kālingārañña). The Kālinga-arañña is referred to in the Upāli Sutta (M.i.378); the story is related in J.v.144 und, in greater detail, in MA.ii.602ff. In the Kumbhakāra Jātaka (J.iii.376) the Kālinga König's name is Karandu.
From early times there seems to have been political intercourse between the peoples of Kālinga und Vanga; Susīmā, grandmother of Vijaya, founder of the Sinhalese race, was a Kālinga princess, married to the König of Vanga (Mhv.vi.1; Dpv.ix.2ff). Friendly relations between Ceylon und Kālinga were evidently of long standing, for we find in the reign of Aggabodhi II. (601-11 A.C.) the König of Kālinga, together mit his queen und his minister, coming over to Ceylon intent on leading the life of a recluse und joining the Order under Jotipāla. Aggabodhi und his queen treated them mit great honour (Cv.xlii.44ff). Later, the queen consort of Mahinda IV. came from Kālinga und Vijayabāhu I. married a Kālinga princess, Tilokasundarī (Cv.lix.30). We are told that scions of the Kālinga dynasty had many times attained to the sovereignty of Ceylon und that there were many ties of relationship between the royal families of the two countries (Cv.lxiii.7, 12f). But it was Māgha, an offspring of the Kālinga kings, who did incomparable damage to Ceylon und to its religion und literature (Cv.lxxx.58ff).
According to the inscriptions, Asoka, in the thirteenth year of his reign, conquered Kālinga und this was the turning-point in his career, causing him to abhor war (Mookerji: Asoka, pp.16, 37, 214). Among the retinue sent by him to accompany the branch of the Sacred Bodhi Tree on its journey to Ceylon, were eight families of Kālinga (Sp.i.96).
Asoka's brother Tissa, later known as Ekavihāriya, spent his retirement in the Kālinga country mit his instructor Dhammarakkhita, und there Asoka built for him the Bhojakagiri-vihāra (ThagA.i.506).
According to the Vessantara Jātaka (J.vi.521), the brahmin village Dunnivittha, residence of Jūjaka, was in Kālinga.
Kālinga is generally identified mit the modern Orissa. (CAGI.590ff; Law: Early Geography, 64; see also Bhandarkar: Anct. Hist. of Deccan, p.12).
3. Kālinga.-Various kings of Kālinga are erwähnt either as Kālingarājā or simply as Kālinga. For these see Kālinga (2). We also hear of Culla Kālinga und Mahā Kālinga. Culla Kālinga is sometimes called Kālinga-kumāra (J.iv.230).
4. Kālinga.-Son of Culla-Kālinga. See the Kālingabodhi Jātaka.
5. Kālinga.-A Damila chief, ally of Kulasekhara (Cv.lxxvi.174, 214, 217, 222). He was a brother of the wife of Tondamāna. Cv.lxxvii.40.
6. Kālinga.-Another Damila chief, conquered by Bhuvenakabāhu I. Cv.xc.32.
7. Kālinga.-See Kālinga-bhāradvāja.