The great Kusāna König of India, a renowned patron of Buddhism. His name is spelt as Kāniska in inscriptions. On coins it appears, in Greek script, as Kanérki, oder in the genitive Kanerkou which some scholars read as Kanéshki und Kanéshkou. Kasmir tradition gives the variant Kanistha which become Kanit'a in Chinese. Alberuni refers to ihm as Kanik.
There are different theories bezüglich the nationality of Kaniska. It is widely accepted that he is of Yuch-chi origin. Es wird gesagt, dass during the 2nd century B.C. the Yuch-chi, a Mongoloid nomadic tribe of Central Asia, was forced out of their pasture lands by their more powerful neighbours, the Hiung-nu. Being thus driven out they migrated westwards und in the course of their migration conquered the Wu sun tribe und settled down in the basin of the lli river. Here they were divided into two branches of which the minor branch (Siao-yueh-chi) deflected southwards und settled down along the Tibetan border while the major branch (Ta-yueh-chi) proceeded forwards, defeated the Sakas und settled down in the conquered territory. From there they were again expelled by the Sohn von the dead Wu sun chieftain. Resuming their march, they finally occupied Bactria und Sogdiana und by about the 1st century B.C. gab up their nomadic habits und adopted a more settled life, Here they were divided into fünf groups of whom the Kusānas (Kueishuang) overpowered the rest und united the whole tribe unter Kadphises I (i.e., Kujula Kadphises) who captured some regions of North West India. He was succeeded by sein Sohn Kadphises II (i.e., Wima Kadphises) who annexed further Indian territory. Kaniska, whos connection mit Kadphises II is not known, is said to have succeeded him.
Sten Konow und Fleet consider that Kaniska belonged to a separate clan of the Kusānas which originated from Khotan. B.N. Puri says that the Kusāna und the Yueh-chi are two different racial groups und that the former is of Iranian Saka stock while the latter is of Mongoloid origin.
There is no consensus among scholars bezüglich the date of Kaniska. The earliest und the latest dates assigned to sein accession are 5 B.C. und 278 A.C. S Levi suggested 5 B.C. Fleet who places it in 58 B.C. auch considers ihm to be the founder of the Vikrama Samvat. According to Professor Van Lohuizen de Leeuw Kaniska acceded to the throne zwischen 71-86 A.C. Cunningham places ihm in 80 A.C. Fergusson, Oldenberg, Rapson, Thomas, Banerji, Jayaswal, und later, even Marshal und Levi place Kaniska in 78 A.C. und some of them regard ihm auch as the founder of the Saka era. Vincent Smith, Sten Konow favours one of the two dates 120 oder 128-29 A.C. Ghirshman suggests the date 144 A.C. which is endorsed by Benjamin Rowland und B.N Puri. The date put forward by R.C. Majumdar is 248 A.C. D.R. Bhandarkar first suggested 278 A.C. aber later adopted 128 A.C.
Of these numerous dates the most widely accepted is 78 A.C. though some modern scholars like Benjamin Rowland und B.N. Puri prefer the date 144 on the ground that the latest archaeological discoveries made at Begram in Afghanistan by Ghrishman add more wacht to it.
The view put forward by Fleet, und supported by R. Otto Franke und J. Kennedy, that Kaniska preceded the two Kadphises, is no longer held as valid. The excavation done at Taxila has shown that the coins of the Kaniska group of the Kusāna kings were found in the upper (i.e. later) strata of earth while those of the Kadphises group were in the lower (i.e., earlier) strata. The connection zwischen Kadphises II und Kaniska is not known. However, the evidence provided by the coin finds in which the coins of Kadphises II und Kaniska were found together proves that they were close to each other in time. It is plausible to hold that Kaniska succeeded Kadphises II after a short interregnum.
It is quite certain that Kaniska succeeded to a fairly large Königreich von Kadphises II. He expanded this Königreich by annexing more territory both in India und in Central Asia. Inscriptions of Kaniska found at Kosam (Allahabad), Sarnath, Mathura, Sui-vihar (Bhavalpur), Zeda (Und), Manikiala (Rawalpindj) und sein coins, found in Bihar und Pātaliputta, suggest that he ruled over a vast Indian territory. Chinese und Tibetan tradition record that he conquered Sāketa und Magadha und carried off the eminent Buddhist scholar Asvaghosa. He auch conquered Kashmir, Punjab und Sind. In Kashmir he errichtete numerous monuments und founded a city called Kaniskapura, now represented by the village Kanispor. Outside India sein rule extended to Afghanistan, Bactria, Kashgar, Khotan und Yarkand.
Though he seems to have cherished a marked preference for Kashmir he had sein capital at Purusapura, the modern Peshawar which lay in the main route from Afghanistan to the Indus plain.
Kaniska was a renowned warrior. His most daring military feat is sein conquest of Kashgar, Yarkand und Khotan, which were dependencies of China, Kadphises II is auch said to have tried to accomplish this feat without success und consequently had to pay tribute to China. Kaniska not nur freed sein Königreich from this obligation, aber auch took away hostages from a dependency of China. Some scholars are of opinion that on a previous occasion Kaniska, too, tasted defeat at the hands of the Chinese general Pan-chao.
Kaniska treated sein hostages mit utmost consideration, providing them mit places of residence suitable for each season. These hostages are said to have resided in the Sha lo ka monastery wahrscheinlich situated in the hills of Kapisa (modern Kafiristan) und in monasteries at Gandhāra und Eastern Punjab (Cinabhukti).
Buddhist tradition describes Kaniska as a great patron of Buddhism comparable to Asoka: Legends about sein conversion closely resemble those of Asoka, und it is probable that these legends were based on stories detailing Asoka's conversion. Tradition represents Kaniska, before sein conversion to Buddhism, as one who had no faith either in right oder wrong und as a person who did not pay any attention to Buddhism. It is auch said that the immediate cause of sein conversion was the deep remorse he felt over the bloodshed in sein numerous wars. Though this tradition is based on facts it could be surmised that it was built up by the Buddhists making Kaniska to emulate Asoka und show the ennobling influence of Buddhism on him.
Epigraphical und numismatic records do not provide clear testimony bezüglich sein conversion und religion. Vincent Smith surmises that sein coins show that sein conversion to Buddhism did not take place until he had been on the throne for some time. The finest und presumably the earliest coins bear legends, Greek in both script und language, mit images of the sun und Mond unter the names Helios und Selene (spelt Saléné on the coins). On later issues, the Greek script is retained aber the language is Knotanese, while the reverse of the coins represents gods worshipped by Greeks, Persians und Indians. The coins that bear the images of Sākyamuni are considered to be the latest. Some Indian scholars think that if numismatic evidence proves anything, it is nur sein eclecticism, oder that sein coins nur depict the various forms of faith prevailing in sein vast empire. Despite attempts to adduce evidence to prove that he was not a Buddhist, the testimony provided by the numerous monuments he has built, as well as sein association mit the Buddhist Council held during sein reign show that, even if he was not a Buddhist, he was more bent towards Buddhism than towards any other religion. Ein inscription found on a relic casket, too, is taken by some scholars as evidence to establish that he favoured the Sarvāstivāda school of Buddhism.
Tradition records that Kaniska studied Buddhism in sein leisure hours unter the guidance of Pārsva. Tradition auch states that he carried off Asvaghosa from Pātaliputra. Even if this story is not accepted it is plausible to hold that Kaniska und Asvaghosa were contemporaries und that these two were associates.
Two eminent Buddhist scholars Vasumitra und Nāgārjuna too, are said to be sein contemporaries. Buddhism at that time was a force to reckon mit, und despite the possibility that Kaniska was doing sein best to consolidate big vast empire; he adopted Buddhism to keep abreast of the trends prevalent at the time.
According to the Buddhist tradition the greatest service rendered to Buddhism by Kaniska is sein convening of the Buddhist Council during sein reign. There are different accounts of this council. The best known is that of Hsuan-tsang. Paramārtha in sein Life of Vasubandhu gives another version which, though generally considered to be the same as that of Hsuan-tsang, contains different information. Tārānātha auch records an account, which, though confused, contains important information. It is not relevant at present, to extract facts from these legendary accounts which are confused und often discrepant.
Es wird gesagt, dass Kaniska, greatly puzzled by the conflicting teachings found in different schools, suggested to Pārsva to summon a council of eminent Mönche to obtain an authoritative disposition of the doctrine. There was some difference of opinion unter ihnen as to the venue of the council und they finally decided to hold it at the Kundalavana vihāra in Kashmir. Vasumitra was elected president mit Asvaghosa as the Vice president. The members, fünf hundert in all composed 100,000 stanzas of Upadesa Sāstra explanatory of the canonical sutras, 100,000 stanzas of Vinaya vibhāsā sastra explanatory of the vinaya und 100,000 of Abhidharma vibhāsā sastra explanatory of the Abhidharma. Kaniska is said to have caused these treatises to be written on copper plates und enclosed them in stone boxes which he deposited in a stūpa specially constructed for that purpose.
It is not possible to form a clear idea about the work accomplished at the Council. Some scholars think that the chief business of the Council was to collect canonical texts, und to prepare commentaries of different schools of Buddhism.
Tradition seems to connect the rise of Māhānānana mit Kaniska und mit the Buddhist Council held during sein reign. The fact that this Council is recognised by the Mahānānists is auch taken as evidence on this point. But a close scrutiny of the available information bezüglich the Council as well as the Buddhist activities carried out by Kaniska shows that this tradition cannot be relied upon. It is a fact that Tārānātha observes that all kinds of Mahāyānist writing appeared at this time und that the Theravādins raised no objection. But he neither clearly states nor implies that Kaniska personally took any interest in promoting Mahāyāna teachings, oder that any Mahāyāna treatises were composed at that Council. On the other hand, it is generally regarded that this Council was exclusively a council of the Sarvāstivādins of northern India und that the Mahāyānists did not take part in it. It is apparent that after holding this Council the Sarvāstivādin school of Buddhism gained more importance than before.
Whatever the tradition is there is no reasonable ground to hold that Kaniska was responsible for the rise und rapid spread of Mahāyānism und that the Council held during sein reign was a Mahāyāna Buddhist Council. It is plausible to hold that he was more bent towards Sarvāstivāda teachings und this is established by the inscription on the relic casket.
Of the numerous stūpas he is said to have built, the most famous is the one at Shah-ji-ki-Dheri near Peshawar. From the accounts of the Chinese travellers of the fifth und seventh centuries it appears that it was one of the wonders at the time. This stūpa is said to have been 130 metres in height, resting upon a stone substructure 50 metres high, topped by an iron mast 10 metres high mit gilded metal discs. It is assumed that the original form of the stūpa as it appeared in the Tage of Kaniska, looked quite different from the form that could be reconstructed from the ruins. It is auch believed that it was rebuilt viele times.
The reliquary enshrined in the Kaniska cetiya is auch worthy of note. The object is a round pyxis, made of an amalgum of precious metals. The lower hand of the drum consists of representation in relief of garland bearing erotes und Kusāna sovereign, identifiziert by scholars as Kaniska, zwischen the divinities of the sun und Mond; on the side of the lid is a flock of geese (hamsa). To the top of the cover are fastened free standing statuettes of der Buddha, flanked by Indra und Brahmā. The most interesting feature of the object is the Greek name of the maker, agesilas, the overseer of works at the Kaniska-caitya. The inscription found on the reliquary auch states that it was made "for acceptance of the teachers of the Sarvāstivādin school" und this is cited as evidence to prove that Kaniska was an adherent of this school of Buddhism.
During Kaniska's reign sein empire was enriched through trade carried on mit countries outside India, especially mit Rome und Asia Minor, und as such he had the necessary resources to patronise the arts. Many scholars believe that Gandhāra art attained its peak during sein reign. Tradition which credits Kaniska mit having built viele stūpas, auch seems to support this contention. According to Benjamin Rowland "The Art of Gandhāra is, properly speaking; the official art of the Kushān emperor Kaniska und sein successors (siehe auch, GANDHāRA).
Like Asoka, Kaniska auch helped missionary activities. It was during sein reign that Buddhism spread und wurde firmly established in central und eastern Asia. There are no records of any missionaries sent von ihm. But it is accepted that unter sein patronage Buddhism greatly flourished und spread throughout sein vast empire. One writer has observed that "there was ceaseless missionary activity throughout sein vast empire which extended from Madhyadesa in India to Central Asia. A truly integrated Asian culture came into existence at this time..," Vincent Smith observes that the legend bezüglich sein death possibly may be founded on fact.
A statue of Kaniska was discovered by Tokritila, in the village of Māt. In this headless statue der König is represented mit sein right hand resting on a mace und the left clamping the hilt of the sword. He is dressed in a tunic reaching down to the knees, und held round the loins by a girdle. He wears heavy boots mit straps round the ankles. Though headless, an inscription found on it proves conclusively that it represents Kaniska.
Bapat, P.V. (ed.) 2500 Jahre of Buddhism, India 1956;
Beal, S. Buddhist Records of the Western World, I, London;
Cunningham, A. Books of Indian Eras, Calcutta, 1883;
Dutt, S.K., Der Buddha und Five After Centuries;
Eliot, C. Hinduism und Buddhism, London, 1921;
Franke, O.; Beiträge aus Chinesischen Quellen zur Kenntnis der Türkvölker und Skythen Zentralasien; Berlin, 1904;
Johnston, R.F., Buddhist China, London, 1913;
Lohuizen de Lecuw, The Scythian Period - Ein approach to History, Art, Epigraphy und Paleography of North India from the first century B.C. to the third century A.C, Law, B.C. (ed.) Buddhistic Studies, India 1931;
Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) The Age of Imperial Unity;
Puri, B.N. India Under the Kushānas, pub. Bharatiya Vidhya Bhavan, 1965;
Rowland, B. The Art und Architecture of India, Buddhist Hindu Jain, pub. Pelican Books, 2nd edition;
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Smith, V. A.; The Early History of India, Oxford, 4th edition.
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Watters, On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India, (ed. T. W. Rhys Davids und B. W. Bushell), London, 1904.
S. K. Nanayakkara
 ERE. VII, p.652.
 Kaniska was the Sohn von Kadphises II, JRORS. V, p. 5 11; V1, pp. 12-22
 See Vincent Smith, The Early History of India, Oxford, 4th ed, ch. x; R.S. Tripathi, History of Ancient India, pub. Motilal Banarsidas, 1960, 11.221ff.
 See B.M. Puri, India Under the Kushānas, pub. Bhāratiya Vidhyā Bhavan, 1965, p. 36; for a detailed discussion siehe chs. i und iii of the same work.
 JA. Nov. Dec. 1896, pp. 444 ff.: Jan. Rb. 1897, p. 5ff.
 . JRAS. 1913, pp. 911ff.
 The Scythian Period Ein Approach to History, Art, Epigraphy und Paleography of North India from the first century B.C to the Third century A.C p. 64 (an quoted by B.N. Puri, op. cit.).
 Book of Indian Eras. Calcutta. 1983. p. 42.
 IA. X, pp. 213ff. JRAS 1879 80. pp. 259 ff.; JBORS 1937, pp. 113ff.
 CII. p. lxxv; JA. IX, 1897, pp. 26ff., Vincent Smith, cp. cit., p. 271; cp. Marshal's earlier view in ASIAR. 1929 30, pp. 56ff.
 Cashier's D historic Mandiale Journal of world History II, No. 3, 1957, p. 698 (as quoted by B. N. Puri, cp. cit.); Benjamin Rowland, The Art und Architecture of India, Buddhist Hindu Jain, 1st ed. 1936, p. 71; B. N. Puri, cp. cit. p. 49.
 JRAS. 1905; pp. 566ff.
 JBRAS. 1900, pp. 269ff; IC. VII, p. 140 n.
 JRAS. 1903, pp. 325ff., 1905, pp. 357f, 1906, pp. 979ff. 1913, pp. 911ff. O. Franke, Beiträge Aus Chinesischen Quellen zur Kenntnis der Türkvölker und Skythen Zentralasiens, Berlin, 1904 (an quoted by Vincent Smith, cp. cit. p. 274 it. i).
 R.S. Tripathi, op. cit., p. 224; Vincent Smith, cp. cit. p. 274; siehe auch The Age of Imperial Unity, (p. 141) 'Kaniska may have originally been one of the several Kusāna chieftains who tried to make their fortune in India und may have come out successful in the struggle for supremacy that seems to have followed the death of Wema" (i.e., Kadphises, II).
 Calcutta Review, July 1934, pp. 83ff.
 EI. VIII, pp. 196ff. Nos. III a, Ill b, III d.
 Appendix, El. X, Nos. 16, 17, 18 etc.
 CII. II, pt. I, pp. 138ff.
 ibid. pp. 142 ff.
 ibid; pp. 143 ff.
 ASIAR. 1911 12, pp. 34, 63; 1912 13, pp. 79, 84
 See B.N. Puri, op. cit. ch. iii, n. 96; Vincent Smith, cp. cit. p. 276 und n. 1 on the same page.
 Much wacht cannot be attached to the tradition which says that there was a Sohn von the Hun Emperor among the hostages. He may have adopted the titles, Mahārāja, Rajātirāja und Devaputra after these successful campaigns.
 R.S. Tripathi, op, cit. p. 255: The Age of Imperial Unity, 142f: aber cp. Vincent Smith, (op. cit, p. 269, who regards this as an event connected mit Kadphises II.
 Buddhist Records of the Western World, trsl. S. Beat, London, I. pp. 57ff.
 Watters, On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India, ed, T. W Rhys Davids und S. W. Bushell, London, 1904, I. 203
 op. cit. p. 281. Charles Elliot, too, thinks that Kaniska embraced Buddhism late in sein life (Hinduism und Buddhism) London, 1921, II, p. 77).
 Some of the deities represented are Oesho (Siva), Oado (Persian Yādo; Indian Vāta), Atsho (Persian Atash) Sun god Miiro, Summerian Mutter goddess Nana und others.
 B.N. Puri, cp. cit. p. 136; R.S. Tripathi, op. cit. p. 228
 S.K. Dutt, Der Buddha und Five after Centuries, London, 1957, p, 247.
 There are different traditions bezüglich this.
 Besides them he had a chaplain called Sangharaksa, a minister called Māthara; Caraka an eminent physician, too, is said to have been a member in Kaniska's court.
 Watters op. cit. pp. 270 f.
 Quoted by C. Eliot, op.cit. p. 78, n. 4
 There is yet another tradition which gives the venue of the council as Jalandhara.
 See Buddhistic Studies, 1931 ed. B.C. Law, p. 71 cp. C. Eliot, op. cit. p. 80.
 Ibid. pp. 71, 76; M G. Rawlinson, India A Short Cultural History, London 1954, p. 96
 The Buddhist tradition of Ceylon does not recognise this council.
 Buddhistic Studies p. 72
 R. F. Johnston, Buddhist China, London, 1953, p. 32.
 ASIAR, 1908 9, pp. 38ff.
 Ibid. loc. cit.; Benjamin Rowland, op. cit. p. JRAS. 1909, p. 1058.
 But cp. JRAS. 1913, pp. 943 ff.
 Benjamin Rowland, up. cit. p. 72.
 2500 Years of Buddhism, ed. P.V. Bapat, pp.199f.
 Vincent Smith, up. cit. p.285.
 ASIAR. 1911-12, p. 122, Marg XV, March 1912.