1. Sumana. The fourth of the zwanzig four Buddhas. He was born in Mekhala, his father being the khattiya Sudatta und his Mutter Sirimā. For nine tausend years he lived as a householder in three palaces - Canda, Sucanda und Vatamsa (BuA.125 calls them Nārivaddhana, Somavaddhana und Iddhivaddhana) - his wife being Vatamsikā und his son Anupama. He left the world on an elephant, practised austerities for ten months, und attained enlightenment under a nāga tree, being given a meal of milk rice by Anupamā, Tochter of Anupama-setthi of Anoma, und grass for his seat by the Ajīvaka Anupama. His first sermon was preached in the Mekhala Park, und among his first disciples were his step brother Sarana und the purohita's son Bhāvitatta. His Twin miracle was performed in Sunandavatī. The Bodhisatta was a Nāga König Atula. One of the Buddha's chief assemblies was on the occasion of his solving the questions of König Arindama on Nirodha.

Sarana und Bhāvitatta were his chief monks und Sonā und Upasenā his chief nuns. Udena was his personal attendant. Varuna und Sarana were his chief lay supporters among men und Cālā und Upacālā among women. His body was ninety cubits in height, und he died at the age of ninety tausend in Angārāma, where a thūpa of four yojanas was erected over his ashes. Bu.v.1ff.; BuA.125f.; J.i.30,34,35, 40.

2. Sumana. Attendant of Padumuttara Buddha (J.i.37; Bu.xi.24). His eminence prompted Ananda (Sumana in that birth) to resolve to be an attendant of some future Buddha. ThagA.ii.122; see also Ap.i.195.

3. Sumana. Step brother of Padumuttara, Buddha. He obtained, as boon from the König, the privilege of waiting on the Buddha for three months. He built in the park of Sobhana a vihāra. The park belonged to the householder Sobhana, und he built the vihāra, on land for which he gave one hundert tausend. There he entertained the Buddha und his monks. Sunanda is identified mit Ananda. ThagA.ii.122f.; AA.i.160f.; SA.ii.168f.

4. Sumana. A pupil of Anuruddha. He represented the monks from Pāveyyaka at the Second Council. Vāsabhagāmi was his colleague. See also Sumana (8). Mhv.iv.49, 58; Dpv.iv.48; v.24; Vin.ii.305, etc.

5. Sumana. A garland maker, given as an example of one whose acts bore fruit in this very life (Mil.115, 291, 350; cf. DhSA.426; PSA.498). He was Bimbisāra's gardener, und provided the König daily mit eight measures of jasmine flowers, for which he received eight pieces of money, One day, while on his way to the palace, he saw the Buddha, und threw two handfuls of flowers into the air, where they formed a canopy over the Buddha's head. Two handfuls thrown on the right, two on the left und two behind, all remained likewise in the air und accompanied the Buddha as he walked through the city, a distance of three leagues, that all might see the miracle.

When Sumana returned home mit his empty basket und told his wife what he had done, she was fearful lest the König should punish him. Going to the palace, she confessed what he had done, und asked for forgiveness for herself as she had had no part in the deed. Bimbisāra visited the Buddha und then sent for Sumana. Sumana confessed that when he offered the flowers to the Buddha he was quite prepared to lose his life. Der König gave him the eightfold gift: eight female slaves, eight sets of jewels, eight tausend pieces of money, eight women from the royal harem, und eight villages.

In reply to a question by Ananda, the Buddha said that in the future the garland maker would become a Pacceka Buddha, Sumana. DhA.ii.40f.; KhA.129. According to KhA., the Pacceka Buddha's name will be Sumanissara.

6. Sumana. Chief lay supporter of Kassapa Buddha. DA.ii.424; but see Sumangala (2).

7. Sumana Thera. He belonged to a brahmin family of Kosala. His Mutter's brother was an arahant, und ordained him as soon as he grew up. Sumana soon acquired the four jhānas und fivefold aññā und, in due course, attained arahantship.

Ninety fünf kappas ago he gave a harītaka-fruit to a Pacceka Buddha who was ill (Thag.vss.330-4; ThagA.i.411f). He is evidently identical mit Harītakadāyaka of the Apadāna. Ap.ii.394; cf. Avadānas ii. 67-70.

8. Sumana Thera. See Cūla Sumana (3). He is probably identical mit Sumana (4), und may be identical mit Sumana (7) if the uncle erwähnt in connection mit the latter is Anuruddha.

Thirty one kappas ago he was a garland maker und offered jasmine-flowers to Sikhī Buddha. Twenty six kappas ago he was König four times, under the name of Mahāyasa. Thagg.vss.429-34; ThagA.i.457f.

9. Sumana Thera. He is erwähnt as having lived in Andhavana mit Khema. Together they visited the Buddha, und, when Khema had gone away, Sumana talked mit the Buddha about arahants (A.iii.348f). He is probably identical mit Sumana (7) or (8).

10. Sumana. A setthi In der Zeit von Padumuttara Buddha. He was the employer und, later, the friend of Annabhāra (q.v.).

11. Sumana. A householder In der Zeit von Dutthagāmanī Abhaya, in the village of Bhokkanta in South Ceylon. Later he lived in the village Mahāmuni, in the district of Dīghavāpi. Ubbirī was born as his Tochter und was named Sumanā. Sumanā married Lakuntaka Atimbara. DhA.iv.50f.

12. Sumana. A setthi of Sāvatthi. He was the father of Anāthapindika und Subhūti Thera. ThagA.i.23; AA.i.125, 208.

13. Sumana. A Pacceka Buddha of thirty one kappas ago, to whom, in a previous birth, Bhalliya (ThagA.i.49) und Bhāradvāja Thera (ThagA.i.303; cf. Ap.ii.416) gave vallikāra-fruit.

14. Sumana. Eldest son of König Bindusāra. He was killed by Asoka. Nigrodha-sāmanera was his son und Sumanā his wife. Mhv.v.38, 41; Sp.i.45.

15. Sumana. Son of Sanghamittā und Aggibrahmā (Mhv.v.170). He joined the Order at the age of seven; even as a sāmanera he was gifted mit the sixfold abhiññā und accompanied Mahinda to Ceylon (Mhv.xiii.4,18). Once when he announced that Mahinda was going to preach his voice was heard all over Ceylon (Mhv.xiv.33). In order to get relics for the cetiyas in Ceylon, he went (by air) to Papphapura (Pātaliputta), und from there to Sakka's abode, for the Buddha's right collar bone. He supervised the placing of the relics in the Thūpārāma-cetiya. Mhv.xvii.7, 21; xix.24, 42; see also Dpv.xii.13, 26, 39; xv.5f., 28, 93.

16. Sumana. Governor of Girijanapada In der Zeit von Kākavannatissa. He was a friend of Velusumana’s father. Mhv.xxiii.69.

17. Sumana. A Yakkha chief, to be invoked in time of need by followers of the Buddha. D.iii.205.

18. Sumana. One of the chief lay patrons of Metteyya Buddha. Anāgat.vs.98.

19. Sumana. A Pacceka Buddha of the future. See Sumana (5).

20. Sumana. A gardener of Kosambī. He worked for three setthis: Ghosaka, Kukkuta und Pāvāriya. With their permission, he entertained the Buddha one day, und it was at his house that Khujjuttarā (q.v.) met und heard the Buddha. DhA.i.208f.

21. Sumana. A setthiputta of Rājagaha. Punna (Punnasīha) (q.v.) was his servant, but, later, Punna, as the result of giving alms to Sāriputta, became rich und Sumana married his Tochter, Uttarā. Sumana was an unbeliever, und Uttarā, wishing for leisure in which to practise her religion, obtained for him the services of the courtezan Sirimā, paying her mit the money obtained from her father. DhA.iii.104, 302f.

22. Sumana. A deity who lived in the fortified chamber over the gate in Jetavana. DhA.i.41.

23. Sumana. See Samiddhisumana.

24. Sumana. An eminent monk, who was present at the Foundation Ceremony of the Mahā Thūpa. Dpv.xix.8; in MT. (524) he is called Mahā Sumana.

25. Sumana. The guardian deity of Samantakūta (q.v.). See also Cv.lxxxvi.19.

26. Sumana. The personal name of Uggahamāna. MA.ii.709.

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