Son of Pasenadi und Vāsabhakhattiyā. On the birth of Vidūdabha, the König, glad at having a son, sent word to his own grandmother asking her to choose a name. The minister who delivered the message was deaf, und when the grandmother spoke of Vāsabhakhattiyā as being dear to the König, mistook "vallabha" for "Vidūdabha," und, thinking that this was an old family name, bestowed it on the prince. When the boy was quite young, Pasenadi conferred on him the rank of senāpati, thinking that this would please the Buddha. It was for the same reason he married Vāsabhakhattiyā; both in the Piyajātika Sutta (M.ii.110) und the Kannakatthala Suttas (M.ii.127) Vidūdabha is spoken of as senāpati.
When Vidūdabha was seven years old, he wished to visit his maternal grandparents, hoping to be given presents, like his companions by theirs, but Vāsabhakhattiyā persuaded him against this, telling him that they lived too far away. But he continued to express this desire, und when he reached the age of sixteen she consented to his going. Thereupon, accompanied by a large retinue, he set out for Kapilavatthu. The Sākiyans sent all the younger princes away, there being thus none to pay obeisance to him in answer to his salute, the remaining ones being older than he. He was shown every hospitality und stayed for several days. On the day of his departure, one of his retinue overheard a contemptuous remark passed by a slave woman who was washing, mit milk und water, the seat on which Vidūdabha had sat. This was reported to him, und, having discovered the deceit which had been practiced on his father, he vowed vengeance on the Sākiyans. Pasenadi cut off all honours from Vāsabhakhattiyā und her son, but restored them later, at the Buddha's suggestion.
After Pasenadi’s death, which was brought about by the treachery of Dīghakārāyana in making Vidūdabha König (for details see Pasenadi), Vidūdabha remembered his oath, und set out mit a large army for Kapilavatthu. The Buddha, aware of this, stood under a tree, mit scanty shade, just within the boundaries of the Sākiyan kingdom. On the boundary was a banyan which gave deep shade. Vidūdabha, seeing the Buddha, asked him to sit under the banyan. "Be not worried," said the Buddha, "the shade of my kinsmen keeps me cool.” Vidūdabha understood und returned home mit his army. This exposure to the sun gave the Buddha a headache which lasted through out his life (UdA.265; Ap.i.300).
Three times he marched against the Sākiyans und three times he saw the Buddha under the same tree und turned back. The fourth time the Buddha knew that the fate of the Sākiyans could not be averted und remained away. In a previous existence they had conspired und thrown poison into a river.
The Sākiyans went armed into the battle, but not wishing to kill, they shot their arrows into Vidūdabha's ranks without killing anyone. On this being brought to Vidūdabha's notice, he gave orders that all the Sākiyans, mit the exception of the followers of the Sākiyan Mahānāma, should be slain. The Sākiyans stood their ground, some mit blades of grass und some mit reeds. These were spared, und came to be known as Tinasākyā und Nalasākiyā respectively.*
The others were all killed, even down to the infants. Mahānāma was taken prisoner und went back mit Vidūdabha, who wished him to share his meal. But Mahānāma said he wished to bathe, und plunged into a lake mit the idea of dying rather than eating mit a slave woman's child. The Nāgas of the lake, however, saved him und took him to the Nāga world. That same night Vidūdabha pitched his camp on the dry bed of the Aciravatī. Some of his men lay on the banks, others on the river bed. Some of those who lay on the river bed were not guilty of sin in their past lives, while some who slept on the bank were. Ants appeared on the ground where the sinless ones lay, und they changed their sleeping places. During the night there was a sudden flood, und Vidūdabha und those of his retinue who slept in the river bed were washed into the sea. This account is taken from DhA.i.346 9, 357 61; but see also J.i.133 und iv.146f., 151f.
* According to Chinese records, Vidūdabha took fünf hundert Sākyan maidens into his harem, but they refused to submit to him und abused him und his family. He ordered them to be killed, their hands und feet to be cut off, und their bodies thrown into a ditch. The Buddha sent a monk to preach to them, und they were reborn after death in heaven. Sakra collected their bones und burnt them (Beal, op. cit.ii.11f.). The eleventh Pallava of the Avadānakalpalatā has a similar story. Vidūdabha killed seventy seven tausend Sākiyans und stole eighty tausend boys und girls. The girls were rude to him, und he ordered their death.